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CardioSpark LLC
4640 E. Skyline Drive
Tuscon, AZ 85718
Learn about the Residential AED Integrated Network (RAINTM) Solution
The Residential AED Integrated Network (RAINTM) Solution

The challenge in residential areas is timely arrival of assistance when sudden cardiac arrest occurs. Our RAINTM solution meets this challenge by enabling volunteers trained in CPR and AED usage to be alerted when sudden cardiac arrest occurs in their communities at the same time an EMS team is dispatched. The ideal scenario is depicted in this chart:

RAINTM accepts alerts from the 911 call center Computer Aided Dispatch system, confirms that a sudden cardiac arrest has been reported, determines if the reported address is in a community with trained volunteers on call, and passes the alerts on to these volunteers. The volunteers then proceed to the address of the event and begin CPR and use an AED. EMS teams take over when they arrive. When volunteers arrive and begin treatment of the victim prior to EMS arrival, resuscitation rates double or triple compared to scenarios in which nothing is done until EMS teams arrive, on average nationally in eight or more minutes.

Key Features of RAINTM
Community Awareness and Support

The first essential component of a successful program is community awareness of the threat posed by sudden cardiac arrest and a willingness to take action to improve response times when it strikes. Key concepts that are often misunderstood:

  • The difference between sudden cardiac arrest and a heart attack (as explained in the previous Tab on this website or insert link); in summary, a heart attack usually is accompanied by symptoms like pain, fatigue, and other discomfort but does not usually lead to death immediately; the interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain associated with sudden cardiac arrest leads immediately to loss of consciousness and death or serious impairment if not treated within 3-5 minutes
  • As noted in the previous Tab (or insert link), the chest compressions associated with CPR can force a minimal circulation of blood to occur; there is a small amount of residual oxygen in the blood that can provide a few extra minutes of survival for the brain.
  • The only way to restore normal heart function is to use an AED to administer a shock to the heart
  • Depending on the distance from the EMS location to the residential area, volunteers who live in the community can arrive prior to the arrival of professional responders; a study conducted by cardiologists at the University of Arizona (see next Tab of this website or insert link)
  • Volunteers are protected if they offer assistance in an emergency under Good Samaritan laws at the Federal and state level (most states)

Fire Department/EMS Participation

RAINTM is by its very nature a collaboration with local fire and EMS organizations. There is no intent to compete or interfere with professional first responders. Our goal is to accelerate the initiation of care when sudden cardiac arrest occurs in residential areas that are often remote from the nearest fire station, for example. A call to 911 is still the essential first step in any emergency followed by the start of CPR and use of an AED. The EMS teams will have control of every emergency situation as soon as they arrive, but quick action by a bystander can often be the difference between life and death.

Alert Sharing

Most if not all, computer aided dispatch systems have the ability to automatically notify designated third parties at the same time an EMS team is sent out. Such third parties may include people like the police chief, the fire chief, a public official such as a mayor, and others who wish to be aware of emergencies in their jurisdiction. Adding RAINTM to that distribution list is normally a simple step that can be accomplished in minutes at little or no cost. RAINTM then determines if the emergency is coded as a cardiac arrest, matches the emergency address to a data base of covered addresses, and, if there is a match, passes the alert on to a list of volunteers associated with that geographic area.

Resident and Volunteer Information

The system that receives alerts from a dispatch center includes a data base of covered addresses and volunteer contact information. Each resident in the covered area has been given the opportunity to opt in or out of the program. Medical instructions on file with the fire department, such as a Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) instruction, will be noted in the data base and honored. No volunteers will be dispatched in such cases.

Accessible AEDs

One of the challenges in residential areas is the availability of 24/7 accessible AEDs. Thanks to the efforts of foundations, civic organizations, and governmental bodies, AEDs are now quite common in schools, churches, sports facilities, airports, train stations, theaters, and other commercial and public spaces. Residential areas at this time, on the other hand, rarely have AEDs placed in convenient locations in outdoor cabinets. We work with homeowners’ boards, private citizens, and other associations to obtain and position AEDs in central locations for use by the volunteers who agree to participate in a RAINTM program as described in this section of our website. The AEDs will be placed in secure cabinets with coded key pads. The codes will be known to the volunteers and fire and EMS personnel. The alerts passed on by the RAINTM system will include the codes needed to access the AEDs.

Trained Volunteers

The volunteers who agree to respond in cases of a cardiac emergency agree to participate in training to learn compression only CPR, how to use an AED, comply with applicable regulations regarding the privacy of health information, and follow safe procedures when responding, e.g., not exceeding speed limits or otherwise violating traffic laws when traveling to an emergency. We recommend refresher training on a regular basis.

Program Management

Normally, there will be one or two lead “Coordinators” for the program. They will keep the resident/volunteer data base up to date, check on the readiness of the AEDs in the neighborhood, ensure regular training for new and continuing volunteers, sponsor periodic public education programs for new residents, and serve as liaison with the fire department and local EMS teams.

Regulatory Complianc

The Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) establishes important rules regarding medical information. In cases of emergency, fire departments and EMS teams are empowered to share information about an individual at risk of death or serious injury with private citizens who are in a position to mitigate that risk. Even so, community volunteers who come into the possession of such information, such as an individual suffering a sudden cardiac arrest, must be briefed to endure proper handling and protection of that information. Has adopted a privacy policy that complies with HIPAA and the training provided to volunteers includes a section on HIPAA and their obligations regarding health information about a victim.

HeartSafe Community Designation

Communities that adopt and implement a program like RAINTM earn the right to call themselves HeartSafe Communities and post signage such as the following in their neighborhoods.


CardioSpark has been granted the following patents for the system and method embodied in the RAINTM system: Patent No. 10,092,767 issued October 9, 2018 for SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR NETWORK-ENABLED AUTOMATIC ELECTRONIC DEFIBRILLATORS.

CardioSpark also has been granted Patent No. 10,004,912 issued: June 26, 2018 for SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.